Physical processes at the interaction of laser CO2 radiation with the material

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Савченко О. М. № 2 (61) 86-93 Image Image

The physical essence of the process of action of laser CO2 radiation on the material is reflected. The structural scheme of the laser system is given and the constituent components of the laser are described. The classification of types of lasers which differ among themselves in active environments, capacities and operating modes is carried out. The study of physical processes was performed on a carbon dioxide CO2 laser machine of continuous action TS1390. It is found that under the action of laser radiation of a certain wavelength and energy on the material there are local changes in the structure and properties associated with the destruction or change in the structure of monomers in the thermal field. The physical processes that occur during the interaction of the laser beam with the material are presented in the form of diagrams. The nature and result of interaction of these processes are studied. Four stages in the interaction of laser radiation with the material are analysed: absorption and heating, melting, evaporation, plasma formation. Ranges of change of density of power of laser radiation depending on process of processing are presented. Areas with different modes of interaction are given and their possible applications are noted. Appropriate values are given for the spectral regions: the visible and near-infrared regions, as well as for the region of CO2 laser generation (~ 10 μm). It is found that the area of interest is located below the threshold of the absorption wave. The main parameters of CO2 laser radiation for the process of engraving and cutting materials are presented, namely, power, wavelength, duration of radiation, ener­gy and frequency of pulses, as well as coherence, directionality, monochromaticity and polarization of radiation. Identifying the nature of thermophysical processes allows one to optimize the energy distribution of CO2 radiation in the material, increasing the effi­ciency of equipment and product quality.

Keywords: laser technologies, physical processes, CO2 laser, laser parameters, printing materials.

doi: 10.32403/1998-6912-2020-2-61-86-93

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