Cognitive models of knowledge problem tasks in formation of educational process

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Polishchuk M. B., Sliusarchuk O. Z., Sliusarchuk Yu. M. № 2 (57) 64-71 Image Image

The article deals with the methods, forms and means of new technologies of teaching in colleges and higher educational establishments of the computer direction. The main task of personally oriented technology is the development of cognitive abilities of each person. The component of person-oriented learning technology is a personally oriented situation. The quality of the training of specialists depends not only on the depth of the assimilation of theoretical knowledge, practical skills, but also on the development of creative abilities, the ability to perceive the dynamic situation, to evalua­te its informational content. The application of personally oriented technology encou­rages the student to be an active interlocutor, the subject of educational activity and productive work, develops communication dialogue capacities, expands the horizons. Problem-based learning is most successfully used in those cases where the teacher has trained students to solve problem situations. Problem situation is the situation of cognitive difficulty which involves students in the independent knowledge of elements of a new topic. Problem situation is the psychological state arising as a result of the mental interaction of the subject (student) with the object (educational material) and causing the cognitive need to reveal the essence of the process or phenomenon as an image of the situation in sensory perception, to allocate the target task, to formulate a strategy for its solving. Positive aspects are that the students’ ability to develop on the basis of the deve­lopment of a cognitive neurostructure is formed, to solve complex situational tasks that describe crisis, conflict and non-standard problems and phenomena in production systems and organizational structures. Especially effective problem learning is used when content is available for self-searching of students, i.e. when created on the basis of the content problem situations are in the zone of proximal development of cognitive abilities of students and their professional orientation and cognitive abilities in the mastering of knowledge and production skills.

Keywords: intellect, education, self-organization, aim orientation, distance lear­ning, personally oriented technology of teaching.

doi: 10.32403/1998-6912-2018-2-57-64-71

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