Special economic zones: foreign experience of formation and functioning

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Homolska V. V. № 2 (57) 90-102 Image Image

In the article current researches on the state and characteristics of functioning of special economic zones in the world have been summarized. On this basis, the types, approaches to creation and economic effects of special economic zones have been defined in view of the possibilities of using this experience in Ukraine as a factor of effective inclusion of the domestic economy in the processes of globalization. The creation of different types is caused by the serious changes that have taken place in the world over the past decades. They are created for solving both the general economic and foreign economic tasks of the countries. In developing countries, the main source of capital attracted in special economic zones is foreign investment, and in developed countries, the priority direction of the development is economic strengthening of depressed regions by attracting national private capital, allocation of state subsidies and loans.

In the world practice there is a huge successful experience of functioning of special economic zones in various political and socio-economic systems, territories and conditions: technological parks in the USA, zones of development of high and new techno­logies in China, service areas of the Caribbean basin, free trade zones, and others. The main objective of the creation of special economic zones is solving of strategic tasks of (foreign trade, general economic, social, regional, scientific and technical) development of the state as a whole or its separate territory (territories). The article deals with the approaches to the creation of economic zones, the most common in the world practice: the method “from above” and the method “from below”. The classification of special economic zones has been given, in particular: export-production zones, free trade zones, technological zones, export promotion zones, service and complex zones. Their diffe­rences, specificity of formation, conditions for residents and non-residents, countries and regions practicing each type of economic zones have been analyzed. The recommendations on foreign practice of functioning of special economic zones have been presen­ted, which could be taken into account in the domestic conditions.

Keywords: special economic zones; regional clusters; technopolises; industrial parks; free trade zone; export-production zones.

doi: 10.32403/1998-6912-2018-2-57-90-102

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